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A calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. Calories in food provide energy in the form of heat so that our bodies can function. Our bodies store and consume calories as fuel. When the word “calorie” is used in nutrition settings, it is referred to as kilocalories.  A kilocalorie (kcal), or a large calorie, is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celcius. A kilocalorie is equivalent to 1000 small calories. Kilocalories are the “calories” when referring to the energy in food…. Read More

muscle hypertrophy

The quest to increase lean body mass is widely pursued by those who lift weights. Research is lacking, however, as to the best approach for maximizing exercise-induced muscle growth. Bodybuilders generally train with moderate loads and fairly short rest intervals that induce high amounts of metabolic stress. Powerlifters, on the other hand, routinely train with high-intensity loads and lengthy rest periods between sets. Although both groups are known to display impressive muscularity, it is not clear which method is superior for hypertrophic gains. It has been shown that many factors mediate the hypertrophic process and that mechanical tension, muscle damage, and metabolic stress all can play a role in exercise-induced muscle growth. Therefore, the purpose of this article is twofold: to extensively review the literature as to the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to training and to draw conclusions from the literature as to the optimal protocol for maximizing muscle growth….Read More


The latest supplements, a sophisticated training routine, a proper diet. Granted, all of these things are crucially important but what is often neglected is sufficient sleep. It is true that the more you work, the more you gain. But after working hard in the arena and tiring yourself, you need some time off to recover. There’re many aspects of muscle recovery, but the most important and often neglected is sufficient sleep….Read More

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